The following information is condensed and reprinted from AOPA ePilot -- Vol. 5, Issue 11, all rights reserved. The complete article is available at http://www.aopa.org/members/files/guides/maintenance.html for AOPA members.
Prepared by the Watsonville Pilots Association
In our daily contact with thousands of aircraft owners and pilots, one major theme prevails. AOPA members are deeply concerned about the high costs associated with owning and operating general aviation aircraft.
As pilots, most of us are not mechanics by training or occupation, yet many of us derive satisfaction from tinkering with mechanical things, especially aircraft. By performing routine maintenance on our own aircraft we not only gain personal satisfaction but also become better educated about the equipment we fly, making us better and safer pilots. The opportunity also exists to save a substantial percentage of the annual maintenance costs associated with aircraft ownership.
Many aircraft owners, however, never attempt to work on their aircraft for a variety of reasons. Chief among these is a general sense of intimidation by the complexity of the airplane. Another is the fear of doing something wrong and running afoul of the local FAA inspector. Similar to this is the concern by the pilot that he or she may perform some function incorrectly, potentially jeopardizing the pilot’s own safety and that of passengers at some future date. These are all very legitimate concerns, and it is our hope that this booklet will help address each of them.
Probably the most common reason for pilots not to perform their own routine maintenance is the belief that the FAA will permit only such a limited amount of work to be handled by the owner that it is not worthwhile to even attempt it. In fact, there is a rather broad array of tasks that we as owners and operators of type certificated aircraft can legally perform without the ongoing supervision of an aviation maintenance professional. And, with a little additional assistance from your local aviation maintenance technician (A&P mechanic), there is not much you can’t do yourself.
But hold on! Before you head off to the airport with wrench in hand to fix all those annoying little maintenance items you noticed on your last flight, it is important to fully understand your privileges and responsibilities as a certificated pilot in performing routine maintenance.
Items Permitted Under the Privileges of Preventive Maintenance
Please read carefully the following 32 items that are permitted under the privileges of preventive maintenance and the short brief that follows. They will help you better understand your privileges. Item number 30 pertains to primary category aircraft only. To understand what is required when performing preventive maintenance, you should also read thoroughly AC 43-12A, which follows those 32 items.
FAR Part 43, Appendix A, Paragraph C - Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance is limited to the following work, provided it does not involve complex assembly operations:
1. Removal, installation, and repair of landing gear tires.
Tire changes may not be as simple as anticipated; here are some important considerations:
Know the proper jacking procedure for your aircraft as outlined in the service manual. The aircraft should be jacked in an enclosed hangar. If the aircraft must be jacked outside, take into consideration wind and proximity to taxiway;
Consider how the removal of wheelpants will affect other systems;
Know the type of brake system and how it may affect wheel removal and installation;
Removal and installation of the wheel-retaining nut requires a special touch. Have your mechanic demonstrate how freely the wheel should rotate after being installed. Replace the old cotter pin with a new one of proper size;
WARNING! Due to high air pressure don’t forget to deflate the tire prior to disassembly of the wheel halves for tire and tube replacement. Another important consideration is the proper torque on the bolts securing the wheels halves together.
2. Replacing elastic shock absorber cords on landing gear.
Shock absorber cords, commonly called bungee cords, are found on many types of airplanes. Examples: Cub, Aeronca, and Pitts. At first glance, changing the bungee cords looks like a simple task. Believe us, if you don’t have the proper tools, it’s like going hunting for a grizzly bear with a hickory stick. Don’t do it.
3. Servicing landing gear shock struts by adding oil, air, or both.
The FARs allow the adding of oil and air to air-oil or oleo struts. However, many manufacturers recommend the use of nitrogen instead of air, which helps to prevent the possibility of corrosion. It’s also a good idea to keep that dirt and grime removed from the bottom of the shock strut by wiping it down using a clean rag with some MIL-H-5606 on it. This will help to increase the life of the strut.
4. Servicing landing gear wheel bearings, such as cleaning and greasing.
Cleaning and greasing wheel bearings is an art. There are several very important steps to follow when servicing the wheel bearings:
Cleaning - This must be done thoroughly, using a cleaner such as Varsol.
Inspection - Now that the bearing is cleaned, inspect the roller and inner and outer races for deterioration.
Greasing - If you don’t have access to a bearing grease machine, get ready to get dirty. Take a nice dab of grease and put it into the palm of your hand. Force the grease into the side of the bearing until the grease comes out the other side. Now you have accomplished the ultimate in preventive maintenance.
5. Replacing defective safety wiring or cotter keys.
Always place safety wire in a manner to cause the item to be tightened. Use approved safety wire of the thickness specified, normally .032 and .041 (refer to service manual for recommended safety wire to be used). Don’t over-torque or under-torque nuts or bolts in order to align cotter key holes. Do not use safety wire bought from a hardware store; it’s not approved for aircraft use.
6. Lubrication not requiring disassembly other than removal of nonstructural items such as cover plates, cowlings, and fairings.
If you are going to lubricate moving parts on your aircraft, first refer to the lubrication section in the service manual for the type of lubricate and how to apply it. You should also check with your A&P mechanic before getting started. Many Piper aircraft have Teflon-coated aileron hinges and should not be lubricated.
Engine oil change is one of the simplest tasks that pilots are allowed to do under the privileges of preventive maintenance, but it’s one of the most critical.
Start by checking with your mechanic for any airworthiness directives that apply when changing engine oil in your airplane. One that comes to mind is Avco Lycoming 80-04-03 R2, which requires using an additive in the engine oil and inspection of the oil filter. Only an A&P mechanic can sign this AD off and return the airplane to service.
Many people today are doing oil analyses. One oil analysis will tell you very little about your engine. You will need to develop a history of oil analyses by taking oil samples from the same location and after the same number of hours each time you collect the oil samples. Then you will start to develop a history on what’s happening inside the engine.
Another good idea is cutting the oil filter open and rinsing the filter element in a bucket of Varsol or a similar material. Use a magnet to extract ferrous particles, and save them for later examinations. Filter the remaining solvent through a coffee filter, and examine the remains. You should ask your A&P mechanic for advice on what you see the first couple of times. Many people will save the coffee filter and particles until the next engine oil change for comparison.
Type of Contamination/Quantity/Suggested Course of Action. Small, shiny, nonmagnetic flakes of metal and/or hairlike magnetic slivers. Fewer than 40 pieces (total) of filter after 25 hours: Place aircraft back in service and recheck screen. As above, 40 to 60: Clean screen, drain oil pieces (total) refill. Run engine on ground for 20 to 30 minutes then recheck screen. If clean, fly aircraft 1 to 2 hours and recheck. If still clean, check once more after 10 hours. As above, _ or more teaspoon: Remove engine from service. Investigate to determine cause. Chunks of metal, magnetic and nonmagnetic, the size of a broken pencil point or greater. Any quantity: Check sump for other pieces. Bore scope cylinders to check for possible valve and/or Nonmagnetic plating averaging approximately 1/16 inch in diameter. May have copperish tint. _ teaspoon or more: Ground aircraft and investigate. If cause cannot be found, mail particles to engine manufacturer for analysis. Same as above, but minus copperish tint: Propeller action may be impaired. _ teaspoon or more: Ground aircraft. Mail material to engine manufacturer for analysis. Nonmagnetic brass or copper-colored material resembling coarse sand in consistency, _ teaspoon or more: Ground aircraft and investigate. If origin cannot be found, send particles to engine manufacturer for analysis. Any piece of metal (of any kind larger than a broken pencil point, any quantity: Ground aircraft and send particles to engine manufacturer for analysis. Chart provided by Kas Thomas.
7. Making simple fabric patches not requiring rib stitching or the removal of structural parts or control surfaces. In the case of balloons, the making of small fabric repairs to envelopes (as defined in, and in accordance with, the balloon manufacturer’s instructions) not requiring load tape repair or replacement.
Remember: no rib stitching or control surface repair.
8. Replenishing hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic reservoir.
MIL-H-5606 is the common type of hydraulic fluid used in light airplane brakes and hydraulic gear systems. Use of other than recommended fluid can cause damage to seals, O-rings, and other parts of the system. Be sure you add only the same kind of fluid as that already in the system; follow instructions in the service manual.
9. Refinishing decorative coating of fuselage, balloon baskets, wing tail group surfaces (excluding balanced control surfaces), fairings, cowlings, landing gear, cabin, or cockpit interior when removal or disassembly of any primary structure or operating system is not required.
Refinishing decorative coating: At first glance, this sounds like a simple task, but it becomes complicated very fast.
You should start by checking the service manual for recommended procedures and material to be used. Then discuss your intentions with your mechanic and a reputable paint shop attendant. You will need a place to buy those materials and dispose of the unused materials and remains, and they may prove to be excellent sources.
Many aircraft manufacturers require control surfaces to be balanced after painting, so leave those parts to the professionals.
Remember: The quality of paint and workmanship will affect not only the value of your airplane, but performance, as well.
10. Applying preservative or protective material to components where no disassembly of any primary structure or operating system is involved and where such coating is not prohibited or is not contrary to good practices.
Check with your mechanic prior to applying preservatives or protective materials to ensure their lasting effect. Some problem areas that have been noted are alternator drive belts and autopilot servo clutches.
11. Repairing upholstery and decorative furnishings of the cabin, cockpit, or balloon basket interior when the repairing does not require disassembly of any primary structure or operating system or interfere with an operating system or affect the primary structure of the aircraft.
When repairing or replacing upholstery, you are required to meet the original type design requirements. Use only material that has met the burn test requirements. The supplier of the aircraft interior will provide you with the needed paper work for your logbook. Do not buy materials from a local upholstery shop because your mechanic may ask you for the certification paperwork at the next annual.
12. Making small simple repairs to fairings, nonstructural cover plates, cowlings, and small patches and reinforcements not changing the contour so as to interfere with proper air flow.
Be careful; what you consider a simple repair may not be. You should refer to the service manual and then ask for advice from your A&P mechanic before making a judgment call. You must use approved material and procedures to do the repair.
13. Replacing side windows where that work does not interfere with the structure or any operating system such as controls, electrical equipment, etc.
Remember that we are talking side windows, not windshield; leave that up to the A&P mechanic. There are many airplanes out there in which replacing a side window is a simple task. However, be careful. As the aircraft systems become more complicated, so will the side window installation.
14. Replacing safety belts. You are allowed to replace your seat belts and shoulder harnesses with approved belts for your make and model airplane.
If you elect to change the belts it is strongly suggested that you follow the service manual instructions for installation. If the manual calls for two washers and a spacer, use them. Changing the belts is definitely a safety-of-flight issue, which may affect your well being.
15. Replacing seats or seat parts with replacement parts approved for the aircraft, not involving disassembly of any primary structure or operating system.
Once again, this should be regarded as a safety-of-flight issue that can affect your well-being. The seats are specifically designed. Don’t modify them to make them stronger or more rigid.
Replacement seats or seat parts must be of an approved design for your make and model airplane.
16. Trouble shooting and repairing broken circuits in landing light wiring circuits.
This doesn’t include position and panel lights or similar lighting systems on your airplane. If you elect to venture into other systems, words of caution: Lack of knowledge of the system may cost you more money for needed repairs.
17. Replacing bulbs, reflectors, and lenses of position and landing lights.
Replacement is allowed in these two systems as well as in the anticollision lighting system.
18. Replacing wheels and skis where no weight and balance computation is involved.
19. Replacing any cowling not requiring removal of the propeller or disconnection of flight controls. Pilots are permitted to remove and replace cowlings and cowl flaps on the aircraft they own or operate. However, don’t forget that only certified mechanics may remove a propeller.
20. Replacing or cleaning spark plugs and setting of spark plug gap clearance.
Some important items to consider when changing spark plugs:
Have available and use the proper manuals, tools, and equipment needed for the job, which includes a torque wrench.
Use the proper spark plugs for the engine.
Know the plug rotation sequence for the engine. Many people use a simple process of rotating the plugs from top to bottom and then next in firing order.
21. Replacing any hose connection except hydraulic connections.
Owners are allowed to replace any hose or hose connection except hydraulic connections, which also includes broken lines. You are also allowed to change such lines as:
Owners may replace static pressure lines except when used for IFR flight (see FAR 91.411); however, it is strongly suggested that you leave those to the A&P mechanic.
22. Replacing prefabricated fuel lines.
You are allowed to replace prefabricated fuel lines with approved prefabricated fuel lines for your make and model airplane.
23. Cleaning or replacing fuel and oil strainers or filter elements.
Follow the service manual instructions when cleaning or replacing fuel, oil, induction air, and vacuum filter elements. Use only approved strainers and filters when replacing them. The one from the automobile parts store is not approved.
There are several ADs that come to mind when talking about filter changes. You should also check with your mechanic for all ADs that apply to your airplane.
AD 84-26-02 requires replacement of the paper induction filter prior to reaching 500 hours time in service. You are allowed to change the filter, but only an A&P can sign off the AD and return the airplane to service.
See the appendix for the AD.
Another AD that comes to mind is Avco Lycoming AD 80-04-03 R2, which requires at the next engine oil change, not to exceed 50 hours, adding an additive to the engine oil, examination of the engine oil suction screen for presence of metal particles, and the inspection of the external full- flow oil filter for metal particles by cutting it open so that the pleated element can be unfolded and examined. You can change the oil and make your entry in the logbook, but once again, only an A&P mechanic can return the airplane to service by signing off the AD.
See the appendix for the AD.
24. Replacing and servicing batteries.
When replacing your airplane’s battery, use only an approved battery for your make and model airplane. You are also permitted to add water (distilled water) and charge your battery. If you need to clean the battery, terminals, or battery box area, baking soda works about the best. Flush with fresh water when you’re completed. Don’t allow any baking soda to enter the battery.
Emergency Locator Transmitter battery replacement is also permitted, provided you are able to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. Don’t forget that the new expiration date for replacing (or recharging) the battery must be legibly marked on the outside of the transmitter and entered in the aircraft maintenance record.
25. Cleaning of balloon burner pilot and main nozzles in accordance with the balloon manufacturer’s instructions.
Comply with manufacturer’s recommendations.
26. Replacement or adjustment of nonstructural standard fasteners incidental to operations.
You are permitted to remove and replace nonstructural standard fasteners, which also includes the removal and replacement of screws or rivets used to attach fasteners.
Remember that you must use the approved fasteners, screws, and rivets for your airplane.
If you are one of those mechanically gifted people, have at it ‘ drive those rivets. But if you like to put a square peg in a round hole, this may be a complex task for you. Leave it to the professionals.
27. The interchange of balloon baskets and burners on envelopes when the basket or burner is designated as interchangeable in the balloon type certificate data and the baskets and burners are specifically designed for quick removal and installation.
You must comply with type certificate data sheet.
28. The installations of anti-misfueling devices to reduce the diameter of fuel tank filler openings provided the specific device has been made a part of the aircraft type certificate data by the aircraft manufacturer, the aircraft manufacturer has provided FAA-approved instructions for installation of the specific device, and installation does not involve the disassembly of the existing tank filler opening.
Always comply with the FAA-approved instructions from the manufacturer when installing anti-misfueling devices on your airplane.
29. Removing, checking, and replacing magnetic chip detectors.
Comply with the engine and airframe manufacturers’ recommendations when removing, checking, and replacing the magnetic chip detector.
30. The inspection and maintenance tasks prescribed and specifically identified as preventive maintenance in a primary category aircraft type certificate or supplemental type certificate holder’s approved special inspection and preventive maintenance program when accomplished on a primary category aircraft provided:
31. Removing and replacing self-contained, front instrument panel-mounted navigation and communication devices that employ tray-mounted connectors that connect the unit when the unit is installed into the instrument panel, (excluding automatic flight control systems, transponders, and microwave frequency distance measuring equipment (DME)). The approved unit must be designed to be readily and repeatedly removed and replaced, and pertinent instructions must be provided. Prior to the unit’s intended use, an operational check must be performed in accordance with the applicable sections of part 91.
32. Updating self-contained, front instrument panel-mounted Air Traffic Control (ATC) navigational software data bases (excluding those of automatic flight control systems, transponders, and microwave frequency distance measuring equipment (DME)) provided no disassembly of the unit is required and pertinent instructions are provided. Prior to the unit’s intended use, an operational check must be performed in accordance with applicable sections of part 91.
Advisory Circular 43-12a
1. PURPOSE. This advisory circular (AC) provides information concerning preventive maintenance, who may perform it, the standards of performance applicable to it, authority for approving aircraft for return to service, and the applicable recording requirements. This AC also clarifies those areas most frequently misunderstood in the past, and explains the recent changes in the rules concerning preventive maintenance.
2. CANCELLATION. AC 43-12, Preventive Maintenance, dated July 16, 1976, is canceled.
3. RELATED FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS (FAR). Part 1, Definitions and Abbreviations, Section 1.1; Part 43, Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration; Part 61, Certification: Pilots and Flight Instructors; and Part 145, Repair Stations.
4. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE.
a. The holders of mechanic and repairman certificates, persons working under the supervision of these mechanics and repairmen, repair stations certificated under Part 145, and air carriers certificated under Parts 121, 127, and 135, are authorized to perform preventive maintenance. These persons are also authorized to perform other maintenance. Therefore, it is of little consequence to them how a particular function is classified, since they are authorized to perform the function as either preventive maintenance or as other maintenance. Further, the procedures used in approving for return to service and recording are identical. This AC will, therefore, consider preventive maintenance from the owners/operators point of view.
b. FAR Part 1, Section 1.1, defines preventive maintenance as ".... simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations."
1. FAR Part 43, Appendix A, paragraph (c) contains the list of those functions determined by the FAA to meet this definition. If a function does not appear in this list, it is not preventive maintenance. Further, because of differences in aircraft, a function may be preventive maintenance on one aircraft and not on another. To provide for this, paragraph (c) contains the limitation, ‘provided it does not involve complex assembly operations’ on the aircraft involved. Owners and pilots must use good judgment in determining that a specific function may appropriately be classified as preventive maintenance.
2. A pilot may not perform preventive maintenance on aircraft used under Parts 121, 127, or 135, even when the pilot owns the aircraft.
c. Persons authorized to perform preventive maintenance. In addition to those persons listed in paragraph 4a of this AC, Section 43.3(g) authorizes the holder of a pilot certificate issued under Part 61 to perform preventive maintenance. Section 43.7 limits the privileges to persons holding at least a private pilot certificate and Section 43.5 prohibits operation of the aircraft unless approved for return to service. Further, pilots may only approve for return to service preventive maintenance which they themselves have accomplished.
1. A pilot is defined as a person holding at least a private pilot certificate or above.
2. A pilot may not perform preventive maintenance on aircraft used under FAR Parts 121, 127, or 135, even when the pilot owns the aircraft.
3. A pilot who owns an aircraft may not work on his/her aircraft unless they hold at least a Private pilot certificate.
d. Applicable performance standards.
1. FAR 43.13 requires preventive maintenance to be done using methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Administrator. These are normally set forth in the manufacturer’s maintenance manuals; however, some may be found in ACs published by the FAA.
[NOTE: It is absolutely essential to have the appropriate manuals and data when performing preventive maintenance.]
2. FAR 43.13 requires the use of the tools, equipment, and test apparatus necessary to assure completion of the work in accordance with accepted industry practices. This means that the proper tools and test apparatus must be used. Normally these are listed as part of any FAA-approved manufacturer’s maintenance literature.
3. FAR 43.13 also requires that any special equipment recommended by the manufacturer or its equivalent must be used in a manner acceptable to the Administrator. This provision is more directly applicable to maintenance than preventive maintenance. However, it may come into play. Therefore, owners and pilots should be aware of it.
4. Additionally, Section 43.13 requires that the work performed and the materials used are to be such as to ensure that, when the work is finished, the item worked on is at least equal to its original condition. Caution must be exercised because some functions, which appear to be simple tasks, may, in fact, be quite complicated. Care should be taken to ensure that the manufacturer’s instructions are understood, the function is within the individual’s capability, within the definition of preventive maintenance, and that it is listed in paragraph (c) of Appendix A of Part 43.
e. Recording preventive maintenance. Preventive maintenance must be recorded in accordance with Section 43.9 of FAR Part 43. This is done by entering in the maintenance record, of the item worked on, the following:
1. A description (or reference to data acceptable to the Administrator) of the work performed." This should indicate what was done and how it was done. This is normally quite simple for preventive maintenance; however, if the description is extensive, reference to documents containing that description is acceptable. These may be manufacturer’s manuals, ACs, or other documents or references containing data acceptable to the Administrator. If documents other than types which are in common use are referenced, the document should be made a part of the maintenance record, as required by Section 43.9(a)(1).
2. The kind of airman certificate exercised. When preventive maintenance is performed as authorized in Section 43.3(g), the certificate may be indicated in any manner which would be clear to the reader. For example: PP, CP, or ATP might be used to indicate private, commercial, or airline transport pilot, respectively. The certificate number is that number displayed on the certificate being exercised. Affixing a signature to the entry, which describes the work accomplished, constitutes approval for return to service, as required by Section 43.9(a)(4).
NOTE: Since owners/pilots are not authorized to approve work accomplished by others, Section 43.9(a)(3) is not applicable when preventive maintenance is performed by the holder of a pilot certificate. The holder of the pilot certificate doing the work is the only person who can sign the approval for return to service.
f. The changes to Section 43.9 which require preventive maintenance to be recorded became effective October 15, 1982 (Amendment 43-23, 47 FR 41076; September 16, 1982). On this same date, the list of items considered to be preventive maintenance in Appendix A of Part 43 was expanded. Two of the items warrant discussion.
1. Item 25 (Part 43, Appendix A, paragraph [c]. This item deals with the assembly of gliders and has been on the list of preventive maintenance for some time. The recording requirements are intended to provide continuity in the maintenance record and to ensure that the person performing preventive maintenance assumes responsibility for the work performed. An entry for the assembly after required inspection ensures this assumption of responsibility. Repeated entries are required each time a person assembles the aircraft for operation. The assembly must be recorded and the aircraft approved for return to service in accordance with Section 43.9 by a person authorized in Section 43.7.
2. Item 28 (Part 43, Appendix A, paragraph [c]. This item deals with the installation of balloon baskets and burners specifically designed for quick removal and installation. Such disassembly and assembly is necessary to facilitate transporting the balloon either to the launch site or after a flight is terminated. The assembly operation is preventive maintenance and subject to the provisions of Sections 43.3, 43.7, and 43.9. As required by Section 43.1(b), entries are required for assembly operations on all balloons except those certificated in the experimental category which have not been previously certificated in another category.
g. Items 6 and 23 (Part 43, Appendix A, paragraph [c]. These items permit the draining and reservicing of oil, and the removal, cleaning and reinstallation oil screens, filters, and strainers in an aircraft oil system to be done as preventive maintenance, and are subject to the provisions of Sections 43.13(a) and (b).
FAR 43.3 - Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration.
a. Except as provided in this section and FAR 43.17, no person may maintain, rebuild, alter, or perform preventive maintenance on an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part to which this part applies. Those items, the performance of which is a major alteration, a major repair, or preventive maintenance, are listed in Appendix A.
b. The holder of a mechanic certificate may perform maintenance preventive maintenance, and alteration as provided in FAR Part 65.
c. The holder of a repairman certificate may perform maintenance and preventive maintenance as provided in FAR Part 65.
d. A person working under the supervision of a holder of a mechanic or repairman certificate may perform the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations that his supervisor is authorized to perform, if the supervisor personally observes the work being done to the extent necessary to ensure that it is being done properly, and if the supervisor is readily available, in person, for consultation. However, this paragraph does not authorize the performance of any inspection required by FAR Part 91 or Part 125 of this chapter or any inspection performed after a major repair or alteration.
e. The holder of a repair station certificate may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations as provided in FAR Part 145.
f. The holder of an air carrier co-operating certificate or an operating certificate issued under FAR Part 121, 127, or 135, may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations as provided in FAR Part 121, 127, or 135.
g. The holder of a pilot certificate issued under Part 61 may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft owned or operated by that pilot which is not used under FAR Part 121, 127, 129, or 135.
FAR 43.5 - Approval for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
No person may approve for return to service any aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless:
a. The maintenance record entry required by FAR Part 43.9 or 43.11, as appropriate, has been made.
FAR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
a. Except as provided in this section and FAR Part 43.17, no person, other than the administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service after it has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
b. A person holding at least a private pilot certificate may approve an aircraft for return to service after performing preventive maintenance under the provision of FAR Part 43.3(g).
FAR 43.9 - Content, form, and disposition of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration records (except inspection performed in accordance with FAR Part 91, 123, 125, and 135.411 (a)(1), and 135.419 of this chapter).
a. Maintenance record entries. Except as provided in paragraph (b) and (c) of this section, each person who maintains, performs preventive maintenance, rebuilds, or alters an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following information:
1. a description (or reference to date acceptable to the administrator) of work performed.
2. the date of completion of the work performed.
3. the name of the person performing the work if other than the person specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.
4. if the work performed on the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part has been performed satisfactorily, the signature, certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person approving the work, the signature constitutes the approval for return to service only for the work performed.
FAR 43.12 - Maintenance records: Falsification, reproduction, or alteration.
a. No person may make or cause to be made:
1.any fraudulent of intentionally false entry in any record or report that is required to be made, kept, or used to show compliance with any requirement under this part;
2.any reproduction, for fraudulent purpose, of any record or report under this part; or
3.any alteration, for fraudulent purposes, of any record or report under this part.
FAR 43.13 - Performance Rules (General)
a. Each person performing maintenance, alteration, or preventive maintenance on an aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance shall use methods, techniques, and practices prescribed in the current manufacturer’s maintenance manual or instructions for continued airworthiness prepared by its manufacturer, or other methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the administrator, except as noted in FAR 43.16. He shall use the tools, equipment, and test apparatus necessary to assure completion of the work in accordance with accepted industry practices. If special equipment or test apparatus is recommended by the manufacturer involved, he must use that equipment or apparatus or its equivalent acceptable to the administrator.
b. Each person maintaining or altering, or performing preventive maintenance, shall do that work in such a manner and use material of such a quality, that the condition of the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance worked on will be at least equal to its original or properly altered condition (with regard to aerodynamic function, structural strength, resistance to vibration and deterioration, and other qualifies affecting airworthiness).
FAR 43.17 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations performed on U.S. aeronautical products by certain Canadian persons.
a. Definitions. For purposes of this section:
Aeronautical product means any civil aircraft or airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, component, or part to be installed thereon.
Canadian aeronautical product means any civil aircraft or airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance under airworthiness regulation by the Canadian Department of Transport, or component or part to be installed thereon.
U.S. aeronautical product means any civil aircraft or airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance under airworthiness regulation by the FAA, or component or part to be installed thereon.
b. Applicability. This section does not apply to any U.S. aeronautical products maintained or altered under any bilateral agreement made between Canada and any country other than the United States.
1. A person holding a valid Canadian Department of Transport license (Aircraft Maintenance Engineer) and appropriate ratings may, with respect to a U.S.-registered aircraft located in Canada, perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section and approve the affected aircraft for return to service in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.
2. A company (Approved Maintenance Organization) (AMO) whose system of quality control for the maintenance, alteration, and inspection of aeronautical products has been approved by the Canadian Department of Transport, or a person who is an authorized employee performing work for such a company may, with respect to a U.S.-registered aircraft located in Canada or other U.S. aeronautical products transported to Canada from the United States, perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section and approve the affected products for return to service in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.
d. Performance requirements - A person authorized in paragraph (c) of this section may perform maintenance (including any inspection required by 91.409 of this chapter, except an annual inspection), preventive maintenance, and alterations, provided:
1. The person performing the work is authorized by the Canadian Department of Transport to perform the same type of work with respect to Canadian aeronautical products;
2. The work is performed in accordance with 43.13, 43.15, and 43.16 of this chapter, as applicable;
3. The work is performed such that the affected product complies with the applicable requirements of part 36 of this chapter; and
4. The work is recorded in accordance with 43.2(a), 43.9, and 43.11 of this chapter, as applicable.
e. Approval requirements
1. To return an affected product to service, a person authorized in paragraph (c) of this section must approve (certify) maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations performed under this section, except that an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer may not approve a major repair or major alteration.
2. An AMO whose system of quality control for the maintenance, preventive maintenance, alteration, and inspection of aeronautical products has been approved by the Canadian Department of Transport, or an authorized employee performing work for such an AMO, may approve (certify) a major repair or major alteration performed under this section if the work was performed in accordance with technical data approved by the Administrator.
f. No person may operate in air commerce an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance on which maintenance preventive maintenance, or alteration has been performed under this section unless it has been approved for return to service by a person authorized in this section.
Sample Maintenance Record Entries
in accordance with (manufacturer) maintenance manual,
Chapter___________, page________. Landing light switch
|Pilot’s Signature||Rating||Certificate Number|
control switch deactivated by capping heater fuel lines
in accordance with (manufacturer) maintenance manual,
Chapter__________, page_________. Heater control switch
|Mechanic’s signature||Certificate Number|
American Champion Aircraft Company
P.O. Box 37
Rochester, WI 53167
Phone: (414) 534-6315, (800) 223-9381
Manuals and parts for Citabria, Decathlon, Scout.
Arctic Aircraft Company
Manuals for Interstate aircraft. Spare parts.
Aviat Aircraft, Inc.
Cessna Aircraft Company
Fairchild Aerospace Corp.
Bombardier Aerospace Learjet
2099 Georgia Hwy 133 S.
Route 5, Box 319
Moultrie, GA 31768
Phone: (912) 985-2045
Manuals and parts for Maules.
Mooney Aircraft Corp.
The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.
Raytheon Aircraft Corp.
Manuals for Beech. Call for parts distributors in your area.
Schweizer Aircraft Corp.
Manuals for all Types of AircraftEssco, Inc.
426 W. Turkeyfoot Lake Road
Akron, OH 44319
Phone: (330) 644-7724
(not a manufacturer)
55 Inverness Drive East
Englewood, CO 80112
Phone: (800) 621-5377
Government Printing Office
AeroncaSafe Air Repair
401 Airport Road
Albert Lea, MN 56007
Phone: (507) 373-7129
330 Aviation Way
Frederick, MD 21701
Phone: (301) 662-8156, (800) 545-9393
P.O. Box 2548
Leesburg, VA 20175
Phone: (703) 771-0188, (800) 336-0219
BellancaSafe Air Repair
401 Airport Road
Albert Lea, MN 56007
Phone: (507) 373-7129
Miller Flying Service
CessnaCessna Aircraft Corp.
P.O. Box 7706
Wichita, KS 67277
Phone: (316) 517-5800
Hagerstown Aircraft Services, Inc.
21 Mirybrook Road
Danberry, CT 06810
Phone: (203) 744-5010
Henry Weber Aircraft Distributors, Inc.
PiperAtlanta Air Motive Parts, Inc.
P.O. Box 700
Newnan, GA 30264
Phone: (404) 762-9500
SkyMart Sales Corp.
All G/A AircraftA/C Team Inc.
P.O. Box 751907
Memphis, TN 38175
Phone: (901) 794-4488
Repair station for fuel cells.
Air Parts of Lock Haven
Aero Propeller & Accessories
Prop overhauls & parts for Hartzell &McCauley props.
Atlanta Air Salvage
Atlantic Aero Inc.
General Aviation, Inc.
Desser Tire & Rubber Co.
Fresno Air Parts
The Gyro House
Mid Continent Aircraft
New England Propeller Service
Parker Hannifin Aircraft Wheel & Brake Div.
Turbo ComponentsPiedmont Hawthorne Aviation
6427 Bryan Blvd.
Greensboro, NC 27409-9419
Phone: (336) 668-0481, (800) 438-4408
Sensenich Propeller Services
©1995-2003 Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
Copyright © 2001-2012. All Rights reserved. WPA Home Page | Discover WVI Airport | Users of WVI Airport | Friends of WVI Airport | WINGS Seminars | Buena Vista Development | WVI Airport Video Clips | Join the WPA! | Newsletter Archives
Watsonville Pilots Association, a Chapter of the California Pilots Association
A 501 (c) (3) organization. All Rights reserved.
Mail to: P.O. Box 2074, Freedom, CA 95019-2074
Last modified: 08/10/2006
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Copyright © 2001-2012. All Rights reserved.
WPA Home Page | Discover WVI Airport | Users of WVI Airport | Friends of WVI Airport | WINGS Seminars | Buena Vista Development | WVI Airport Video Clips | Join the WPA! | Newsletter Archives